Friday, May 22, 2020
Culture is a part of every nation and every society. Although it is found in every society, they all are different in their own respects. Some may have similar aspects, but no two societies are exactly the same due to what could be small variations or very drastic ones. Due to these discrepancies, this is where Anthropology comes into play. Anthropology studies and compares human societies and culture along with their development. Some anthropologist dedicates their whole bodies of work to one society because there is so much information that needs to be covered about the said group. Some topics that they look at are kinship, language, subsistence, political systems, and much more. James F. Weiner (1988) and Sir John Eric Sydney Thompson (1930) both look at all of these themes when conducting their ethnographic studies in Asia and Central America. James F. Weiner looked at the Foi people while Sir John Eric Sydney Thompson. When viewing these two cultures gender roles and subsistence seem to be the most interesting to compare. James F. Weiner (1988) studied and observed the Foi people in his ethnographic study. What he found was that the Foi are located in New Guinea on the border of the Gulf Provinces and the Southern Heights (Weiner 1988). This group of people is a very small collection of people, in the fact that there are roughly only 4,500 people in this society (Weiner 1988). All of their villages are near the Mubi River and they are separated from other societiesShow MoreRelatedGuns, Germs, And Steel, Diamond Chronicles History1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Human cultures and societies have developed at various rates and achieved different levels of progress over thousands of years, resulting in some societies being labeled as more advanced than others. More advanced societies experienced complex technologies, evident in their tools and innovations, and more refined cultural structures such as social class and government systems. Other societies experienced slower rates of development as they maintained rudimentary lifestyles with simple technologiesRead MoreCulture And Its Influence On Culture923 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEvery country will have a background in religion and culture that the people are living in has always been followed under the threshold of this generation to another generation. What is a culture? Why everyone should live the same culture and that culture has one? What are people thinking about the culture in which they are under? However, culture is what can connect with people and over time it became a habit in person s life. Culture is the concept of the inner bearing wide jaw with a lot of differentRead MoreHow Culture Can Be Defined As The Norms, Values, And Language867 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCulture can be defined as the norms, values, beliefs, and language that makes up a humans way of living; it influences the decisions people make, how people act, and more. Culture can vary among generations, nations, or even the small distance of a city. As humans, we use and rely on culture everyday to make decisions for good or bad outcome; it can influence negative or positive action in a society, for instance, racism is a negative cultural trait that has been carried through generations. CultureRead MoreWhy Humans Develop Their Psychological Attributes Based On Genetics ( Nature ) Or Their Environment1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe debate on whether humans develop their psychological attributes based on genetics (nature) or their environment and how they were raised (nurture) are two controversial issues in cent ral psychology within psychologist and philosophers. For centuries, the disputation between nature and nurture surged on regards to which one of the two has a greater significance: Ã¢â¬ËThe inborn nature of the individual or the environmental influences that nurture the individualÃ¢â¬â¢.( Hockenbury, Don; Hockenbury, SandraRead MoreCulture Vs. Society.1241 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Culture vs. Society Submitted by Class Date Introduction Throughout the 20th century, the anthropological views of culture have evolved significantly. Anthropologists view culture as the learned and accumulated experience. A culture of a particular community or society integrates the socially transmitted patterns of behaviors characteristics of a specific social group. However, the definition is still evolving with some scholars defining culture as the knowledge, beliefs, art, moralsRead MoreThe Time Machine, And The Machine Stops By. Forster1526 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesProjections that have been made about how todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society and culture will look in the coming years, decades, and centuries, all have yet to be seen in how valid they are. If you look in any sort of media: television, social media, or radio/music, you will see people giving their interpretations of what will become of our world down the road. Yet, few people look to see how our the current state of culture and society reflect the projections made by people in previou s years, decades, and centuriesRead MoreConfucius Lives Next Door Essay1038 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesregarded as a complex mechanism of social, political, moral as well as religious beliefs that have considerable influence especially upon the civilizations belonging to the East Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea along with Singapore and Vietnam. With reference to the observation made by Reid (1999), it can be viewed that a clear depiction about different principles and beliefs exists within the sphere of Ã¢â¬Å"ConfucianismÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, the major purpose of this reportRead MoreSocial And Cultural Differences Throughout The World861 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOne can gain experiences by acknowledging and understanding social and cultural differences throughout the world. Travel helps enlighten these aspects along with humanitarian efforts. Tourism provides insight to economic standings of various cultures. Through tourism society can Ã¢â¬Å"promo te peace and understanding between peoples.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬ ¦) Thomas Cook saw and understood the hardships the working class in the United Kingdom and a vison for those less fortunate to have a once and a lifetime experience ofRead MorePiagets Theory Of Natural Selection1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Development is an evolutionary process that is a common phenomenon experienced by all living species including humans. Its main purpose is to regulate internal and external factors to survive. It refers to the physical, cognitive, and social development in species. However, unlike other species, this process in humans is complex and essential to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s survival. The importance of it is evident in DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of natural selection. According to Darwin (1859), only the most equipped to surviveRead MoreThe Current State Of Culture And Society1642 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesProjections that have been made about how todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society and culture will look in the coming years, decades, and centuries, all have yet to be seen in how valid they are. If you look in any sort of media: television, social media, or radio/music, you will see people giving their interpretations of what will become of our world down the road. Yet, few people look to see how our the current state of culture and society reflect the projections made by people in previous years, decades, and centuries
Friday, May 8, 2020
Comparing Hemingways A Very Short Story and Fitzgeralds This Side of Paradise nbsp; When you first read a tragic, melodramatic love scene you feel like your heart is breaking too. Sometimes you cry. It is only after the initial rush of feelings that you begin to feel cheated. Usually the kind of writing that gives you the urge to be demonstrative does not stay with you as long as something more subtle. In Scott Fitzgeralds This Side of Paradise, the reader is presented with such a love scene in the form of a play. I admit to having sobbed for a solid minute after reading about the ill-fated romance between Amory Blaine and Rosalind Connage. However, the same subject, with different characters, told in a much more concise,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦One of the ways that Hemingway achieves this is that his sentences alternate between dealing with a very small detail or specific moment and moving the story through long periods of time. In the opening paragraph of the story, Hemingway paints the picture of one night at the hospital. He takes time to note that there w ere chimney swifts in the sky. Later on we skip through his entire experience when he returns to the war, seeing the period only in terms of the girl. Hemingway can move through time quickly in the story without losing the thread of the narrative. There is nothing in the story that is not essential to understanding the experience of the boy and the girl. nbsp; In the Fitzgerald novel, on the other hand, there is so much extraneous material that it can be difficult to process. The twenty five page section that deals with the romance even changes style several times, moving from a play to prose and back again. There is none of the tight craftsmanship found in the Hemingway story. nbsp; Amory and Rosalinds lines are full of clicheacute;s and bright, splashy comments. The stage directions are things like, their eyes were blinded by tears, and other dramatic indications. The Fitzgerald tale is one of intense but fleeting impressions. nbsp; Another important distinction between the two stories
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Compare and contrast supervision and leadership. How are they alike and/or different? Give examples that will help clarify the distinction. Leadership is the process of enlisting and guiding the talents and energies of teachers, pupils, and parents toward achieving common educational aims. We will write a custom essay sample on Comparison: Supervision and Leadership or any similar topic only for you Order Now A leader is someone who others consistently want to follow for new trends and ideas. A leader has followers that believe in the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s overall vision and idea of a place. A leader manages a group and helps inspire them using their own strengths. The leader is responsible for the placing together the right people for the right Jobs. A person who oversees workers or the work done by others can be considered a supervisor. Supervisors are charged with managing othersÃ¢â¬â¢ performance, including conducting performance evaluations. A supervisor is a step above the lead position in an entity. Ã¢â¬Å"Under the law, a supervisor is any person with authority over you, in other words, any person who can direct you (the worker) as to when and how to do a taskÃ¢â¬â¢ (Ministry of Labor, 6). Sometimes the supervisor is the same person you call the boss. Their position is behind the scenes and they basically hold others responsible for the plans being implemented and developed. Ministry of Labor. (06, 2014 28). Employers and supervisors. Retrieved from http://www. WorkstationÃ¢â¬â¢s. Gob. On. Ca/scripts/ mcategory=health Else- You mention the concept of supervisors being the observers and monitors-I think this is a very good explanation of the roles that they play In the education system. Because supervisors are not exactly hands-on, they do a lot of their observations with check lists and rubrics. They are responsible for ensuring that curriculum Is being taught effectively and the monies and the budget for a school are allocated properly. A leader, however Is a person (or group of people) manages others with guidance to make them better at the Job they are Implementing. A leader has followers that believe In their vision. I agree with your statement about leaders being the ones who make their strengths known while helping other Identify theirs! How to cite Comparison: Supervision and Leadership, Essays
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
David Letterman and numerous other comedians have exploited this case as the punch-line to countless jokes. 1 One of my favorite Seinfeld episodes involves Cosmo Kramer suing Java World after Kramer spills a cup of cafe latte on himself while trying to get a seat at a movie theater. Kramer su? ers from minor burns that are easily remedied after a single application of a balm given to Kramer by the Maestro. Kramer asks his favorite attorney, Jackie Chiles, if the fact that he tried to sneak the co? ee into the theater is going to be a problem in their lawsuit. Jackie responds, Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s going to be a problem. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s gonna be a problem for them. This is a clear violation of your rights as a consumer. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an infringement on your constitutional rights. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s outrageous, egregious, preposterous. Ã¢â¬ 3 When Kramer asks if this lawsuit has a chance, Jackie responds, Ã¢â¬Å"Do we have a chance? You get me one co? ee drinker on that jury, you gonna walk outta there a rich man. We will write a custom essay sample on Mcdonalds vs Liebeck or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ã¢â¬ 4 Of course, Elaine is less than supportive when she ? nds out about KramerÃ¢â¬â¢s latest lawsuit and quips, Ã¢â¬Å"What I mean is who ever heard of this anyway? Suing a company because their co? ee is too hot? Co? ee is supposed to be hot. Ã¢â¬ 5 Obviously, Jerry and company are taking their own shots at the McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s lawsuit in particular, and at frivolous lawsuits in general. It seems that nearly everyone has an opinion about frivolous lawsuits. This author recently removed a box containing class handouts sitting on the ? or in the middle of an entryway into a Bible classroom and asked the person who put the box there if he minded my moving the box because someone could accidentally get hurt. The person responded (knowing that I was an attorney) by simply snorting as he walked away, Ã¢â¬Å"I think everyone who ? les a frivolous lawsuit should be shot. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Objection, non-responsive,Ã¢â¬ I thought, but you get the point. All too often there does not appear to be much we can do to change peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions on this subject. Or is there? Ã¢â¬Å"Just the facts maÃ¢â¬â¢am; just the facts. Ã¢â¬ A line made famous by DragnetÃ¢â¬â¢s Sergeant Joe Friday may be the answer. Unfortunately, people often refuse to let the facts alter their points of view. Ã¢â¬Å"I have my opinion, and I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t let truth, reality, or the facts get in the way. Ã¢â¬ 6 However, if people really knew the true facts about the McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s lawsuit, few would have the same opinion (or misconception) that they carry around today. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s be honest. Most people, attorneys included, know little to nothing about the infamous McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s lawsuit other than the last joke they heard about it. A woman spilled some McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s co? ee on herself, got burned, and got millions of dollars. That is about all most of us know about this woman and her legendary lawsuit. And yet many uninformed people have very strong opinions on this case. Well, as Paul Harvey says, Ã¢â¬Å"And now, the rest of the story. Ã¢â¬ Liebeck v. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurants7 Seventy-nine-year-old Stella Liebeck of Albuquerque, New Mexico, was sitting in the passenger seat when her grandson drove his car through a McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s drive-thru window in February 1992. 8 Liebeck ordered co? ee that was served in a McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s styrofoam cup. 9 After receiving the order, the grandson pulled his car forward and stopped for his grandmother to add sugar and cream to her co? ee. 10 Journal of Consumer Commercial Law S (The rumors of Liebeck spilling her co? e while driving were inaccurate. The car was not moving, and she was not driving. ) While parked, Ms. Liebeck placed the cup between her knees and attempted to remove the plastic lid from the cup. 12 As she attempted to remove the lid, the contents of the cup spilled onto her lap. 13 The co? ee was estimated to be somewhere between 180 to 190 degrees. 14 Ms. Liebeck was wearing sweatpants that day, which absorbed the scorching co? ee, holding it next to her skin. 15 A vascular surgeon diagnosed Liebeck as having su? ered full thickness burns (or third-degree burns)16 over her inner thighs, perineum, buttocks, and genital and groin areas. 7 These third degree burns extended through to LiebeckÃ¢â¬â¢s subcutaneous fat, muscle, or bone.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
buy custom World Religion Class Research Paper essay The world as we know or tend to know it is a haven of beliefs. Everyone would like to believe that he/she worships or believes on a more powerful being than the other. However, there is a problem going by that angle of belief. This is not the period when God or gods used to speak to people through prophets and other divine characters. The problem of these beliefs is brought by the fact that the faithfuls of the different religions cannot prove that they are actually worshipping the right being or that their god is more powerful than that of another group. To distinguish the purpose of one religion from that of another would be a tiresome commitment. However, by investigating the Christian religions and the secular religions, a number of similarities in their beliefs would help determine the likelihood that they worship the same being but in variety of ways. This is a research paper whose aim is to determine a number of similarities within the secular and the Christian religions. To Christians Jesus Christ is their savior and to get to God, they believe that they must honor Jesus first. The holy trinity is another of the Christians beliefs that tend to bring a sense of equity but to only a section of the Christian race. Islam on the other hand can be taken as one religion with multiple of teachings. The same way that Catholics and Protestants dont agree on their interpretations of the Holy Bible, Islam has its partitions which read the same Quran but interpret it differently hence drawing in a situation similar to that of Catholics and Protestants. What connects the Christians and the Islam religions is not what they teach but the belief that between them and God there is a link, incarnation and prophesying are methods that God uses to speak to them, and the human existence is made possible by the will of a supreme being. The Link between God and Humans From time immemorial, objectification of God has been a practice for many religions. It is understood that God uses an army of angels and uses prophets to communicate with the world. To draw the objectification point from that, we look at the holy rosary that is used by Catholics and a number of other religions. The holy rosary has been taken by several churches to represent God. The presence of the cross and/or a curving of what is assumed to be Mary mother of Jesus show that objectification is a way of finding a link between human beings and God. When praying, most of the Christian faithfuls who use the rosary tend to think that it is in the best interest of them to incorporate the rosary. This creates a link assumed to get Gods attention and somewhat drawing in a sense of assurance that their prayers would be answered (Brodd, 2003). Who is Mohammed? Who is Jesus? What is their importance to the lives of the faithfuls who believe in the religions they represent? According to the Islam religion, Mohammed was a prophet who created a link a between the Muslim community and God. This context does not play the same role as that of Jesus for Christians. Jesus is the son of God according to the bible and the beliefs of Christians. To the Muslims who follow theteaching of the Quran with a clear mind, Jesus was also a prophet just like Mohammed. The reason why Muslims believe Jesus was a prophet is because they object the claim by Christians that Jesus was Gods son sent to deliver Jews from sin. The argument by Muslims that Jesus was a prophet is logical due to the fact that in both the Quran and the Bible all people are equal before God. So if God saw it important to make a link between Him and Muslims, then he must have seen it important to create a link for every race. Jesus for the Jews and Mohammed for the Muslims ma kes an impression which stand to be questioned logically; if Jesus represents Jews and Mohammed represented Muslims and they are son and prophet respectively before the eyes of God, why is the imbalance between the two races so pronounced (Shrotri, et al. 1999). There is no point in trying to question why God or the supreme being of whichever religion chose to do things in a certain way or another. Imagining like a god is way off the league of humans, but humans themselves tend to make their own symbols which they believe act as channels of connection between God and themselves. The Cow for Hindus, the Rosary for Catholics, the beads and beards for the Muslim, and shrines for the Buddhists all give the impression that no matter the religion, faithfuls believe on the act of using a person, an animal, an object or assuming a way of life to be close to God. Incarnation and Prophesying The human race is believed to be bound by sin and this is the reason why according to teachings of many religions, there seems to exist a divine power sent to deliver them from sin. In many cultural and social settings, several people and objects are referred to as Gods incarnations to them. The Christian Holy Trinity comprises of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. With sin drawn to the picture, it can be understood that the son is the Gods incarnation to Christians. Developing in the womb of a human to be born as a human in order to save the world (Jews) from sin; the presence of God was brought closer only in a manner made to make the Christian race believe. Arguing from a personal perspective of how it would have been if God chose to represent himself to deliver man from sin; how would it feel like if he introduced himself to Pilate as, Hey, I am God. Different races especially the African traditional settings tend to believe that they have felt the presence of God through a certain elder of their community. Besides what people may assume to be experiencing or believing, hallucination is part of being human. The Hindus do not worship the cow but they assume that the cow is a holy creature responsible for their ways of life. It is believed that Jainism and Buddhism are some of the Indian religions that honor the cow as a holy animal. Is there any aspect of incarnation or prophesy in this belief? We cannot be sure for certain but how about reflecting the teachings and believes of other religions? Christians believe Jesus was the son of God send to earth to deliver Jews from sin. Going with that belief we deduce that the cow in the Indian relligion is Gods incarnation not send to them to deliver them from sin but to help them deal with the day-to-day challenges. The cow in India in used by the Hindus, the Janis, and the Buddhists as a holy animal whose milk nourishes children to a healthy growth, whose dung is a source of energy and an ingredient for the ritual mark on the forehead (tilak). While Christians honor the birth of Jesus Christ by celebrating Christmas, Hindus, Janis, and Buddhist honor the cow with Gopastami (the cow holiday). Brahmans are considered to be high-cast priests whom to their respective duties they are considered prophets in the Hindu religion. Several prophets are used in the Bible to symbolize the use of people by God in connecting with others. Mohammed is considered a prophet in the Islam religion. The faithfuls of all these religions attach special importance to the presence of prophets. They all believe that God work through people to get through to others. The Mormon Church is an example of a secular religion whose doctrines and teachings tend to oppose the teachings of the Quran and the Bible. But conceptually this religion believes that God, prophets and divine elements make up the spiritual world. They believe that God is perfect and they strive to emulate the same. Human Existence and Presence of God Civilization has brought understanding to man in terms of his roots and has laid a foundation for the destination. If we exist now, it means that a much powerful being must have existed before us. Before civilization that took the bible to the Africans, who did the Africans worship? Just like animals, humans have instincts. These instincts work together with the conscious brain to draw reasons as to why things are like they way they are. Both religious and freelancer groups believe or tend to owe their existence to some supreme being. Long before civilization, worshipping was part and parcel of communities all across the world. Even after theories that tend to detach man from Gods creation, it is still believed that a supreme being is responsible for creation or the existence of man. Devil worshippers tend to oppose the teachings of the holy books and tend to honor Lucifer; funny enough they attach the existence of Lucifer to a rather much powerful being. Conclusion People of different denominations owe their existence to some ultimately powerful being. It has been known for ages that the supreme beings responsible for our existence are too powerful that they may cause death if they were seen by us. But in order to make the human race feel close to them and protected, they incarnate themselves to humans and other objects. Neither do we believe in the same teachings nor does our social settings and cultural differences allow for it. This is the reason why there are so many religions in the world. Their teachings are different but all are similar to one another in one way or another. Christians and Muslims believe in the presence of Gods representatives amongst them. Buddhist, Janis and Hindus honor the cow because they believe it is holy and send to them to help them with their day-to-day lives. Buy custom World Religion Class Research Paper essay
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Timeline of the Medieval Traders on the Swahili Coast Based on archaeological and historical data, the medieval period of the 11th through 16th centuries AD was the heyday of Swahili Coast trading communities. But that data has also shown that the African merchants and sailors of the Swahili Coast began toÃ trade in international goods at least 300-500 years earlier. A timeline of the major events on the Swahili coast: Early 16th century, theÃ arrival of Portuguese and the end of Kilwas trading powerCa 1400 start of Nabhan dynasty1331, Ibn Battuta visits Mogadishu14th-16th centuries, a shift in trade to theÃ Indian Ocean, the heyday of coastal Swahili townsCa 1300, theÃ start of Mahdali dynasty (Abul Mawahib)Ca 1200, first coins minted by Ali bin al-Hasan in Kilwa12th century, a rise of Mogadishu11th-12th centuries, most coastal people converted to Islam, a shift in trade to theÃ Red Sea11th century, start of Shirazi dynasty9th century, slave trade with theÃ Persian Gulf8th century, the first mosque built6th-8th centuries AD, trade established with Muslim traders40 AD, author of Periplus visits Rhapta The Ruling Sultans A chronology of ruling sultans can be derived from the Kilwa Chronicle, two undated medieval documents recording an oral history of the large Swahili capital of Kilwa. Scholars are skeptical of its accuracy, however, particularly with respect to the semi-mythical Shirazi dynasty: but they are agreed on the existence of several important sultans: Ali ibn al-Hasan (11th century)Daud ibn al-HasanSulaiman ibn al-Hasan (early 14th c)Daud ibn Sulaiman (early 14th c)al-Hasan ibn Talut (ca 1277)Muhammad ibn Sulaimanal-Hasan ibn Sulaiman (ca 1331, visited by Ibn Battuta)Sulaiman ibn al-Husain (14th c) PreÃ or Proto-Swahili The earliest pre or proto-Swahili sites date to the first century AD, when the unnamed Greek sailor who authored the merchants guide Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, visited Rhapta on what is today the central Tanzanian coast. Rhapta was reported in the Periplus to be under the rule of Maza on the Arabian Peninsula. The Periplus reported that ivory, rhinoceros horn, nautilus and turtle shell, metal implements, glass, and foodstuffs were imports available in Rhapta. Finds of Egypt-Roman and other Mediterranean imports dated to the last few centuries BC suggest some contact with those areas. By the 6th to 10th centuries AD, people on the coast were living in mostly rectangular earth-and-thatch houses, with household economies based on pearl millet agriculture, cattle pastoralism, and fishing. They smelted iron, built boats and made what archaeologists called Tana Tradition or Triangular Incised Ware pots; they obtained imported goods such as glazed ceramics, glassware, metal jewelry, and stone and glass beads from the Persian Gulf. Beginning in the 8th century, the African inhabitants had converted to Islam. Archaeological excavations at Kilwa Kisiwani and Shanga in Kenya have demonstrated that these towns were settled as early as the 7th and 8th centuries. Other prominent sites of this period include Manda in northern Kenya, Unguja Ukuu on Zanzibar and Tumbe on Pemba. Islam and Kilwa The earliest mosque on the Swahili coast is located in the town of Shanga in the Lamu Archipelago. A timber mosque was built here in the 8th century AD, and rebuilt in the same location, again and again, each time larger and more substantial. Fish became an increasingly important part of the local diet, consisting of fish on the reefs, within about one kilometer (one-half mile) from the shore. In the 9th century, connections between Eastern Africa and the Middle East included the export of thousands of slaves from Africas interior. The slaves were transported through Swahili coastal towns to destinations in Iraq such as Basra, where they worked on a dam. In 868, the slave revolted in Basra, weakening the market for slaves from Swahili. By ~1200, all of the large Swahili settlements included stone built mosques. The Growth of Swahili Towns Through the 11th-14th centuries, the Swahili towns expanded in scale, in the numbers and variety of imported and locally-produced material goods, and in trade relationships between the interior of Africa and other societies around the Indian Ocean. A wide variety of boats were built for sea-going trade. Although most of the houses continued to be made of earth and thatch, some of the houses were built of coral, and many of the larger and newer settlements were stone towns, communities marked by elite residences built of stone. Stonetowns grew in number and size, and trade blossomed. Exports included ivory, iron, animal products, mangrove poles for house construction; imports included glazed ceramics, beads and other jewelry, cloth, and religious texts. CoinsÃ were minted in some of the larger centers, and iron and copper alloys, and beads of various types were produced locally. Portuguese Colonization In 1498-1499, the Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama began exploring the Indian Ocean. Beginning in the 16th century, Portuguese and Arab colonization began to decrease the power of the Swahili towns, evidenced by the construction of Fort Jesus in Mombasa in 1593, and the increasingly aggressive trade wars in the Indian Ocean. The Swahili culture fought variously successfully against such incursions and although disruptions in trade and loss of autonomy did occur, the coast prevailed in urban and rural life. By the end of the 17th century, the Portuguese lost control of the western Indian Ocean to Oman and Zanzibar. The Swahili coast was reunited under the Omani sultanate in the 19th century. Sources Chami FA. 2009. Kilwa and the Swahili Towns: Reflections from an archaeological perspective. In: Larsen K, editor. Knowledge, Renewal and Religion: Repositioning and changing ideological and material circumstances among the Swahili on the East African coast. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitututet.Elkiss TH. 1973. Kilwa Kisiwani: The Rise of an East African City-State. African Studies Review 16(1):119-130.Phillipson D. 2005. African Archaeology. London: Cambridge University Press.Pollard E. 2011. Safeguarding Swahili trade in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries: a unique navigational complex in south-east Tanzania. World Archaeology 43(3):458-477.Sutton JEG. 2002. The southern Swahili harbour and town on Kilwa Island, 800-1800 AD: A chronology of booms and slumps.: Uppsala University.Wynne-Jones S. 2007. Creating urban communities at Kilwa Kisiwani, Tanzania, AD 800-1300. Antiquity 81:368-380.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Consider a particular real organization of your choice which has an international profile. Discuss how the organization is adopt - Essay Example The core intention of the company is to produce automobiles in accordance with the needs along with the requirements of the customers. Additionally, the company maintains a balance between its production services and other factors such as environment, drivability, safety and reliability  (Toyota Motor Corporation, 2013). In this respect, the company aims to offer vehicles of enhanced features, so that customers are availed with products beyond their expectations. The company, in order to retain its worldwide position and provide customers with quality products has developed an effective global network  (Toyota Motor Corporation, 2013). Supply chain management (SCM) and logistics play a decisive role for TMC in obtaining required materials from suppliers proficiently and providing finished products to customers in the market segments appropriately. In general, SCM is regarded as a process, which is involved in the movement along with the storage of materials from suppliers to cu stomers. ... In this regard, the company has developed Ã¢â¬ËToyota Production SystemÃ¢â¬â¢ (TPS) with the aim of ensuring that materials along with inventories are handled properly. Additionally, TPS ensures that manufacturing along with logistics operations of the company are managed and integrated with the suppliers along with the customers (Strategos, 2013; Ludwig, 2013). With this concern, this essay intends to discuss about how TMC is adopting the principles of environmental along with social sustainability particularly in its supply chain management and logistics operations by using certain relevant examples. Discussion Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Logistics In the present business scenario, market competition has augmented due to increased level of globalisation and advent of technologies. In this regard, business organisations are required to adopt effective strategies for the purpose of enhancing their respective operational efficiencies and meeting the needs of customers with o ffering innovative products and/or services to them in a timely manner. SCM is a process comprising different activities in accordance with which supply of raw materials and distributions of final products and/or services are based upon. It develops a linkage between the suppliers and the consumers, so that a business organisation is able to execute its business processes and operations in a cost-effective manner. SCM is a procedure of managing the logistic activities of an organisation in order to make its operation and distribution cycle more productive. Additionally, SCM and logistics operations are required to conduct their operations in a social responsible manner and must take into concern